Remixed Image # 3

The idea for this image actually started when I was watching a compilation of late 90’s/early 00’s kids cartoons on youtube. I began to ponder how sinister I could make the innocent Teletubbies appear.



1) This is the image I started with.


2) I began by enlarging the red Teletubby’s eyes using the polygon select tool and free-transform. I also used the clone stamp tool to give the yellow and red Teletubbies shocked eyebrows. I also flipped the yellow Tellytubby’s mouth using the polygon selection and free-transform. I did this in the hope that it would not be a smile but an open mouth of surprise or shock.


3) I did same eyebrows and mouth edits to the other two Tellytubbies.


4) I found a bomb vest for the red Tellytubby


5) And another for the yellow Tellytubby.


6) A grenade for the purple Tellytubby.


7) And an AK47 for the green Tellytubby.


8) I removed the background using the magic eraser tool.


9) I did the same for the other bomb vest.


10) I also removed the background of the grenade picture.


11) As well as the AK47 background.


12) I then copied and pasted the bomb vests onto the two smallest Tellytubbies. I also used the clone stamp tool to make sure that the shoulder straps lined up properly.


13) I placed the grenade into the purple Tellytubby’s hand, and the pin in his other hand. I also placed the AK47 into the green Tellytubby’s hands and erased the parts of his hand that were overlapping.


14) I found a nice Tellytubbies logo.


15) I removed the outside of the logo so it would paste into my picture nicely.


16) I copied and pasted the logo into the top of my picture.


17) I removed the yellow dot that was part of the logo because it didn’t fit the picture very well. I also used a bubble font that I downloaded to create some more text.

The Teletubbies Movie ISIS i-spy

This is the final picture. I am very happy with how it came out. The expressions on the purple and yellow Teletubbies work particularly well in my opinion.


Remixed Image # 2

The idea for this image was based around my passion for Nintendo 64 games. I wanted to see if I could somehow incorporate Mario into a remixed picture. I then started to think about the game Mario Cart 64. I thought it might be cool to have mario evading police in his go cart, so I found the only good picture I could find of police cars chasing someone and started my edit.


1) I found this picture of police cars in pursuit.


2) I began with removing the perpetrator’s car, making sure to leave some of the car behind it where possible, as this would help with the clone stamp tool later on.


3) I then copied the front of the police car to the right of the photo and pasted it over the parts 0f the police car I deleted in step 2. It took a bit of work lining it up and erasing/blurring the required areas but I’m fairly happy with how it turned out.


4) I then used the clone stamp tool to recreate the lighter part of the road that was missing from the deletion in step 2.


5) I then used the clone stamp tool to recreate the missing parts of the road, this was slow and tiresome  work but it came out fairly well all things considered.


6) I used the clone stamp tool some more just fine-tuning the various patches of road.


7) This was about as good as I could get the road to look.


8) I found a picture of mario on a cart.


9) Removed the background using the magic eraser tool.

MCC 10

10) Copied and pasted Mario into the picture.

MCC 11

11) I added some more shadow to Mario’s shadow using the clone stamp tool.

MCC 12

12) I found a nice picture of white smoke.

MCC 13

13) I removed the black background using the magic eraser tool.

MCC 14

14) I removed a bit more of the darker outline using the magic eraser tool.

MCC 15

15) I copied and pasted the smoke into the picture. I did this twice, as I wanted there to be quite a lot of smoke coming from his back wheels.

MCC 16

16) I found a “Breaking News” television boarder. I removed the green using the magic eraser tool.

MCC 17

17) After placing the “Breaking News” boarder. I added the text using the text tool.

MCC 18

18) I found a picture of a gold gun and removed the background using the magic eraser tool.

MCC 19

19) I resized and then flipped the gun horizontally and placed it in Mario’s hand.

MCC 20

20) I erased the parts of mario’s hand that were covering the gun and used the clone stamp tool to make Mario’s fingers seem to wrap around the hand grip.

MCC 21

21) I re-wrote the text to incorporate “gold coins”.

This is the finished picture, and I am quite happy with it. It took me a very long time to complete but I think most people my age would get a kick out of it.


Remixed Image # 1

I completed this remixed image in class. We were told to find a vector graphic of a logo and alter it in such a way that it becomes unrecognisable. We were then told to edit a picture of a celebrity into black and white mode, and then alter the brightness of the celebrity to make it have almost stencil like contrast, much like some of Banksy’s work or the OBEY brand logo.


1) This is the logo I started with.


2) After getting rid of the bottom half I began mirroring what remained.


3) After getting an interesting shape from the mirroring process I mirrored it again and copied the lower half of my shape to the upper half.


4) This was my final “Adidas” remix logo.

Screen shot 2015-09-01 at 1.10.22 PM

5) I also played around with the Nike swoosh.

Screen shot 2015-09-01 at 1.12.49 PM

6) I removed the text, as I wanted to focus on what is arguably the most recognisable brand logo in existence.

Screen shot 2015-09-01 at 1.16.59 PM

7) I made the swoosh angle more horizontally.

Screen shot 2015-09-01 at 1.18.38 PM

8) Mirrored it.

Screen shot 2015-09-01 at 1.19.53 PM

9) Mirrored the moustache like shape.

Screen shot 2015-09-01 at 1.23.50 PM

10) Duplicated another copy of the double moustache shape but placed the second vertically instead of horizontally.

Screen shot 2015-09-01 at 11.53.29 AM

11) Tweaked it a bit more until it was symmetrical and I liked the way it looked.


12) Found a nice picture of one of my girlfriend’s favourite artists Justin Timberlake.

Screen shot 2015-09-01 at 12.49.33 PM

13) I mirrored the right side of his face to cover the left.

Screen shot 2015-09-01 at 12.50.02 PM

14) Made him black and white.

Screen shot 2015-09-01 at 12.50.41 PM

15) Toyed with the contrast and brightness.

Screen shot 2015-09-01 at 12.52.13 PM

16) Toyed with the brightness and contrast some more.

Screen shot 2015-09-01 at 12.53.39 PM

17) Placed my remixed Adidas logo below him

Screen shot 2015-09-01 at 12.55.01 PM

18) I free-transformed the Adidas remix to make it taller. I was starting to like what I had created by this point. I almost considered leaving the image as it was, a ten pin bowling Justin, but I really wanted to incorporate the nike swoosh remix because I really liked the way it had come out.

Screen shot 2015-09-01 at 12.56.54 PM

19) I decided to at least try the nike swoosh remix to see how it looked, and I quite liked it placed behind Justin’s head.


This was my finished image. It’s a little odd, but I quite like it. He looks a bit like a flower or a small fan.


Hyperlinked Essay

“Remixing” is “referring to any reworking of already existing cultural work(s)

In academia we are told to reference our ideas. We are told that most of our ideas will have similarities to the ideas of scholars gone before us. But what confuses me is that you can acknowledge writers before you as inspiration, even copy huge slabs of their writing to use as part of your own work, but the second the format is that of video or audio, it becomes copyright infringement. Lawrence Lessig discusses this well; he believes that you should have the same freedom in video as in writing.

It is also worth noting that “None of us can know everything; each of us knows something; and we can put the pieces together if we pool our resources and combine our skills. Collective intelligence can be seen as an alternative source of media power. We are learning how to use that power through our day-to-day interactions within convergence culture.“(page 4). When we consider this, it becomes clear that we must learn off each other to develop hybrid ideas, not fight over who the ideas belong to, learning and creativity are closely linked to plagiarism and adaptation. Why can’t copyright holders consider (so long as they are not losing large amounts of money) that “Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery…“, and that without imitation, many artists wouldn’t have developed the skills they required.

“I invented nothing new. I simply assembled the discoveries of other men behind whom were centuries of work … progress happens when all the factors that make for it are ready and then it is inevitable.” – Henry Ford’s famous quote is somewhat echoed by Mark Twain in a letter he wrote to Helen Keller in 1903, “For substantially all ideas are second-hand, consciously and unconsciously drawn from a million outside sources… When a great orator makes a great speech you are listening to ten centuries and ten thousand men — but we call it his speech, and really some exceedingly small portion of it is his… It takes a thousand men to invent a telegraph, or a steam engine, or a phonograph, or a telephone or any other important thing — and the last man gets the credit and we forget the others. He added his little mite — that is all he did. These object lessons should teach us that ninety-nine parts of all things that proceed from the intellect are plagiarisms, pure and simple; and the lesson ought to make us modest. But nothing can do that.”

A man who has made a living out of remixing is Greg Gillis, AKA the music artist Girl Talk. Gillis uses preexisting music samples from popular songs and layers them over one another. This mash-up style of music raises many questions regarding music copyright laws, but Gillis defends his music as within the realms of “Fair Use”. “I basically believe in that idea [of Fair Use], that if you create something out of pre-existing media, that’s transformative, that’s not negatively impacting the potential sales of the artist you’re sampling, if it’s not hurting them in some way, then you should be allowed to make your art and put it out there. I think, even in the years of doing this, the conversation has shifted a good bit.”

Gillis highlights the main contributing factor when he says “…potential sales of the artist you’re sampling”. The problem is money. People can make money from remixing. Take music for example, entire albums can be devoted to remixed versions of songs, and they can sell quite well. But this isn’t where the real money comes from, as Kirby Ferguson describes, HUGE amounts of money can be made by suing someone for copyright infringement or patent disputes. Ferguson states that “62 percent of all patent lawsuits are now over software. The estimated wealth lost is half a trillion dollars.“. That is a strikingly large amount of money, and that is where the real problem lies, huge amounts of money like that attract companies and their lawyers who want a cut for themselves.

Kirby Ferguson’s series “Everything is a Remix” highlights the issue well, and he summarises it effectively: “We believe that ideas are property and we’re excessively territorial when we feel that property belongs to us. Our laws then indulge this bias with ever-broadening protections and massive rewards. Meanwhile huge legal fees encourge defendants to pay-up and settle out of court.”

One possible solution to the madness comes from Corynne McSherry, Intellectual Property Director at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, who says. “It wouldn’t take much; what it would take is that there should be some line between penalty and some actual harm. Requiring the owner to show some actual damage would put us a long way to a sane copyright policy.


Readings Responses and thoughts

Week 1 – Everything is a Remix

Kirby Ferguson’s 4 part series “Everything is a Remix” cleverly highlights the ongoing issues around modern film, audio and technological culture. One particular section from it resonates with me: “We believe that ideas are property, and we’re excessively territorial when we feel that property belongs to us. Our laws then indulge this bias with ever-broadening protections and massive rewards. Meanwhile huge legal fees encourage defendants to pay up and settle out of court”. Money plays an important role in life but when money is too overpowering to the arts, humanity can suffer. People’s greed threatens the Multimedia arts immensely. We need to somehow be able to draw the line between inspiration and idea theft.

Week 2 – 70 Minutes of Madness

This music mix by Coldcut highlights the limitless potential for sample based music. The english duo seem to be able to sample almost anything and their sample mashups seamlessly come together. When I found out that this mix was originally released in the year 1996 I was blown away. Although these days music software comes pre-installed on almost every computer as standard, back then it was not so easy to come by. This duo must have been a large part of the inspiration for all sample based artists that followed. Some contemporary sample style artists that I enjoy that this mix reminds me of are:

Coldcut and these other artists show us the possibilities of remixed and sample style music

Week 3 – Worship at the Altar of Convergence

Convergence: “convergence represents a cultural shift as consumers are encouraged to seek out new information and make connections among dispersed media content.” I am reminded by this idea of the many different sports that are made into video games. Is the targetted audience the same for both platforms? my favourite physical sport is skateboarding, which leads to my liking of almost any skateboard video game/film. Contrastingly, I can’t stand to watch soccer the sport but I myself really enjoy the FIFA soccer video games.

Participatory culture: “The term, participatory culture, contrasts with older notions of passive media spectatorship. Rather than talking about media producers and consumers as occupying separate roles, we might now see them as participants who interact with each other according to a new set of rules that none of us fully understands.” I found the examples of Star Wars and Harry Potter fan fiction interesting. No, these fans do not own the rights to the films etc, but surely these copyright owners would want to encourage profitless fan fiction as a kind of free publicity.

Collective Intelligence: As defined by Pierre Lévy, “It is a form of universally distributed intelligence, constantly enhanced, coordinated in real time, and resulting in the effective mobilization of skills. I’ll add the following indispensable characteristic to this definition: The basis and goal of collective intelligence is mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities.” This reminds me somewhat of the upcoming release by Nintendo called Mario Maker.

This almost feels to me like laziness from Nintendo, but if I think about it further, this makes every single customer whom buys the game a video-game engineer. Now the levels will not be designed by just the Video-game engineers at Nintendo, but thousands and thousands of video-game players. The possibilities of this collective intelligence means that we can expect some amazingly creative levels for Mario in the future.

Week 4 – The Manual (How to Have a Number One the Easy Way)

Whilst reading the first section of this book I found its satire and humour clever. In an odd kind of way though my initial response was quickly adjusted. This book makes so many true statements about the pop music industry that I quickly found myself feeling a bit depressed about pop music. It makes it sound so shallow and pointless, and this idea that everyone can produce a pop hit succeeds in reducing all pop music to the level of dribble. If I had any desires to write a top pop hit before I read this, that dream is now forgotten.

Week 5 – War Against Pop: Singing and Suing

Some sections of the reading that jumped out at me:

“In an era wherein media has moved from saturation to atomisation (from the congealment of large forms to the unleashing of fine particles), performances like JP’s populist yet radicalised rendering of “Down Under” demonstrate how musical texts now implode without losing their identity.”

“It’s about the forced divide between pop culture and folk culture … It’s about how the two are implosions of the other, how they live off the other, and how their mechanisms are now more than ever shared … And it’s about how the intelligentsia slathers ethical-mongering, political-correctness and proscriptive-nationalism on such a public incursion of national identity crisis … rather than provide contextual, critical insight into the deeper issues which shape these cultural ground swells.”

““Down Under”’s para-conscious quipping and cribbing of “Kookaburra” can be viewed semiologically (though not ‘legally’) as a therapeutic retort to having suffered the indoctrination of “Kookaburra” in primary schools, where kids were forced to listen to such songs broadcast on ABC radio through PA systems fixed atop the blackboard in a scenario straight out of George Orwell’s paranoid mind.”

“… lyrebirds mimic car alarms, bell birds interface with mobile phones, bowerbirds collect plastic bottle tops. And magpies continue their chattering in the magpie culture of music wherein all is borrowed, all is robbed, and all is sung.”

This was also helpful

The tragic death of Greg Ham makes the issue of copyright begin to be viewed in perspective. It has been said that the copyright case was one of the contributing factors to his death. He was quoted sometime before his death saying “I’m terribly disappointed that that’s the way I’m going to be remembered9 – for copying something…”. 

All that this case makes me think of is greed. The original composer, Marion Sinclair, did not receive any of the money from the case, it wasn’t even her family, it was Larrikin Music who brought the copyright for Kookaburra Sits in the Old Gum Tree’. The song was originally written in the year 1934, and the copyright law lasts for the duration of the composers life plus 70 years. Larrikin Music brought the song, and when the ABC show Spicks and Specks highlighted the similarities they saw their chance to milk whatever money they could from Men At Work’s music label. If Men At Work hadn’t made any money, there would have been no lawsuit. Money motivates the lawyers like a drop of blood does to a shark. Why the world cannot simple let imitation and inspiration go hand in hand, when you separate them you risk restricting music artist from experimentation and exploration.

Week 6 – Remix: Making Art and Commerce Survive in the Hybrid Economy

Week 7 – Appropriation

Appropriation art used pre-existing objects altered or arranged very little to create “new” artworks. The Dadaists were among the first to explore appropriation art and one of their members Marcel Duchamp’s 1917 art piece titled “Fountain” is a great example of this. Made from a urinal and a fire hydrant, two mass produced and common items, he inverts the expectations of a urinal and puts an original spin on the item. A modern day example of this would be the various adaptations of the Barack Obama “Hope” posters. The adaptations use the exact same colour grading and style, only the subject and words are different. I quite like the adaptation of the Joker, which says “Joke” instead of “hope”, or the version of the Mona Lisa which has her taking a “selfie” with the accompanying “Duck pout”. Much like a good mash-up song rely’s on the pre-success of its featured songs, Appropriation art rely’s as much on the familiarity of the original materials as their newer appropriated form, it is like an art of reincarnation and refreshing the old.

Week 8 – 

Week 9 – The History of Spreadable Media

An interesting thought: “Coins, ceramic plates, and religious artefacts may not spring to mind when we think of media, but they very much fit the bill, whether as platforms, bearers of texts, and meanings or as prescribed sets of behaviours. More to the point, their highly mobile histories suggest just how ingrained the notion of spreadability is to media.”

It is also interesting to consider the oral tradition of storytelling. This method was well utilised by the ancient Greeks, famously Homer’s The Illiad or The Odyssey, as well at the native Americans and indigenous Australians. This links into the next quote on the basis of adaptation. With no text to follow in oral tradition, it is fairly accepted that the presenters of the oral tradition stories would alter the stories to make their own versions/adaptations.

“… public support helped these films survive despite local pressures to contain or suppress them, spreading them far more broadly than could advertising campaigns or other promotional efforts.”

People will find a way around control, and in fact sometimes the over exertion of control can result in the over-rebellion against it.